Species

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Patient LT CCPA, transformation from long term ABPA HistorySince March 2004, this 49 year old atopic lady has developed end-stage lung disease following a long history of severe steroid dependant asthma with recurrent infective exacerbations and colonisations by Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas read more... This chest radiograph shows widespread bronchiectatic with numerous small cavities at both apices of the lungs, with overlying pleural thickening and also additional changes at both bases. The transformation from ABPA is occasionally seen after many years of ABPA.
This chest radiograph shows widespread bronchiectatic with numerous small cavities at both apices of the lungs, with overlying pleural thickening and also additional changes at both bases. The transformation from ABPA is occasionally seen after many years of ABPA. Patient LT CCPA, transformation from long term ABPA HistorySince March 2004, this 49 year old atopic lady has developed end-stage lung disease following a long history of severe steroid dependant asthma with recurrent infective exacerbations and colonisations by Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas read more...
Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm Biofilms on bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.
Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm Biofilms on bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

An SEM of A. fumigatus of biofilm surface on bronchial epithelial cells at 48 h showing parallel-packed hyphae and ECM embedded in the hyphal network.

Full paper

Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm Biofilms on bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.
Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm Biofilms on bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM), using CAAF(green) Fun1(red) stained biofilm. The red color of the FUN 1 cell stain was localized in dense aggregates in the cytoplasm of metabolically active cells. Thus, areas of red fluorescence represented metabolically active cells, and green fluorescence indicated cell wall-like polysaccharides, while yellow areas represented dual staining.

Full paper

Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilms on bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.
Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilms on bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

Confocal scanning laser microscopy - (CLSM). CAAF stained showing the hyphal network in contact with extracellular matrix. The polysaccharides of the ECM and fungal cell walls were stained by CAAF (concanavalin A-Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate).

Full paper

Aspergillus fumigatus microscopic characters Conidiophore stipes(C)225-350um arising from hyphae(Hy):Vesicles(Ves)15-25um wide:Phialides(Ph)uniseriate:Conidia(Con)2.4-3.0um spherical to ovoid,roughened.
Aspergillus fumigatus microscopic characters Conidiophore stipes(C)225-350um arising from hyphae(Hy):Vesicles(Ves)15-25um wide:Phialides(Ph)uniseriate:Conidia(Con)2.4-3.0um spherical to ovoid,roughened.

Colonies on CYA 40-60 mm diam, plane or lightly wrinkled, low, dense and velutinous or with a sparse, floccose overgrowth; mycelium inconspicuous, white; conidial heads borne in a continuous, densely packed layer, Greyish Turquoise to Dark Turquoise (24-25E-F5); clear exudate sometimes produced in small amounts; reverse pale or greenish. Colonies on MEA 40-60 mm diam, similar to those on CYA but less dense and with conidia in duller colours (24-25E-F3); reverse uncoloured or greyish. Colonies on G25N less than 10 mm diam, sometimes only germination, of white mycelium. No growth at 5°C. At 37°C, colonies covering the available area, i.e. a whole Petri dish in 2 days from a single point inoculum, of similar appearance to those on CYA at 25°C, but with conidial columns longer and conidia darker, greenish grey to pure grey.

Conidiophores borne from surface hyphae, stipes 200-400 µm long, sometimes sinuous, with colourless, thin, smooth walls, enlarging gradually into pyriform vesicles; vesicles 20-30 µm diam, fertile over half or more of the enlarged area, bearing phialides only, the lateral ones characteristically bent so that the tips are approximately parallel to the stipe axis; phialides crowded, 6-8 µm long; conidia spherical to subspheroidal, 2.5-3.0 µm diam, with finely roughened or spinose walls, forming radiate heads at first, then well defined columns of conidia.

Distinctive features

This distinctive species can be recognised in the unopened Petri dish by its broad, velutinous, bluish colonies bearing characteristic, well defined columns of conidia. Growth at 37°C is exceptionally rapid. Conidial heads are also diagnostic: pyriform vesicles bear crowded phialides which bend to be roughly parallel to the stipe axis. Care should be exercised in handling cultures of this species.

Aspergillus fumigatus Sputum from an asthmatic patient showing plugs(casts). The development of plugs coincided with an increased prevalence and severity of episodes of asthma
Aspergillus fumigatus Sputum from an asthmatic patient showing plugs(casts). The development of plugs coincided with an increased prevalence and severity of episodes of asthma

Colonies on CYA 40-60 mm diam, plane or lightly wrinkled, low, dense and velutinous or with a sparse, floccose overgrowth; mycelium inconspicuous, white; conidial heads borne in a continuous, densely packed layer, Greyish Turquoise to Dark Turquoise (24-25E-F5); clear exudate sometimes produced in small amounts; reverse pale or greenish. Colonies on MEA 40-60 mm diam, similar to those on CYA but less dense and with conidia in duller colours (24-25E-F3); reverse uncoloured or greyish. Colonies on G25N less than 10 mm diam, sometimes only germination, of white mycelium. No growth at 5°C. At 37°C, colonies covering the available area, i.e. a whole Petri dish in 2 days from a single point inoculum, of similar appearance to those on CYA at 25°C, but with conidial columns longer and conidia darker, greenish grey to pure grey.

Conidiophores borne from surface hyphae, stipes 200-400 µm long, sometimes sinuous, with colourless, thin, smooth walls, enlarging gradually into pyriform vesicles; vesicles 20-30 µm diam, fertile over half or more of the enlarged area, bearing phialides only, the lateral ones characteristically bent so that the tips are approximately parallel to the stipe axis; phialides crowded, 6-8 µm long; conidia spherical to subspheroidal, 2.5-3.0 µm diam, with finely roughened or spinose walls, forming radiate heads at first, then well defined columns of conidia.

Distinctive features

This distinctive species can be recognised in the unopened Petri dish by its broad, velutinous, bluish colonies bearing characteristic, well defined columns of conidia. Growth at 37°C is exceptionally rapid. Conidial heads are also diagnostic: pyriform vesicles bear crowded phialides which bend to be roughly parallel to the stipe axis. Care should be exercised in handling cultures of this species.

Aspergillus fumigatus Plugs stained with Methenamine/silverActively growing mycelia of the fungus are a deep brown/black. Counterstaining shows the dense mucus of the plugs as predominantly orange.
Aspergillus fumigatus Plugs stained with Methenamine/silverActively growing mycelia of the fungus are a deep brown/black. Counterstaining shows the dense mucus of the plugs as predominantly orange.

Colonies on CYA 40-60 mm diam, plane or lightly wrinkled, low, dense and velutinous or with a sparse, floccose overgrowth; mycelium inconspicuous, white; conidial heads borne in a continuous, densely packed layer, Greyish Turquoise to Dark Turquoise (24-25E-F5); clear exudate sometimes produced in small amounts; reverse pale or greenish. Colonies on MEA 40-60 mm diam, similar to those on CYA but less dense and with conidia in duller colours (24-25E-F3); reverse uncoloured or greyish. Colonies on G25N less than 10 mm diam, sometimes only germination, of white mycelium. No growth at 5°C. At 37°C, colonies covering the available area, i.e. a whole Petri dish in 2 days from a single point inoculum, of similar appearance to those on CYA at 25°C, but with conidial columns longer and conidia darker, greenish grey to pure grey.

Conidiophores borne from surface hyphae, stipes 200-400 µm long, sometimes sinuous, with colourless, thin, smooth walls, enlarging gradually into pyriform vesicles; vesicles 20-30 µm diam, fertile over half or more of the enlarged area, bearing phialides only, the lateral ones characteristically bent so that the tips are approximately parallel to the stipe axis; phialides crowded, 6-8 µm long; conidia spherical to subspheroidal, 2.5-3.0 µm diam, with finely roughened or spinose walls, forming radiate heads at first, then well defined columns of conidia.

Distinctive features

This distinctive species can be recognised in the unopened Petri dish by its broad, velutinous, bluish colonies bearing characteristic, well defined columns of conidia. Growth at 37°C is exceptionally rapid. Conidial heads are also diagnostic: pyriform vesicles bear crowded phialides which bend to be roughly parallel to the stipe axis. Care should be exercised in handling cultures of this species.

A photograph of a cavity in the upper lobe of the lung of a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. Such cavitation,which may be confused with prior tuberculosis, can follow fibrosis. A photograph of a cavity in the upper lobe of the lung of a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. Such cavitation,which may be confused with prior tuberculosis, can follow fibrosis.
A photograph of a cavity in the upper lobe of the lung of a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. Such cavitation,which may be confused with prior tuberculosis, can follow fibrosis. A photograph of a cavity in the upper lobe of the lung of a patient with ankylosing spondylitis. Such cavitation,which may be confused with prior tuberculosis, can follow fibrosis.
Aspergillus fumigatus An aspergilloma removed from the lung cavity
Aspergillus fumigatus An aspergilloma removed from the lung cavity

Colonies on CYA 40-60 mm diam, plane or lightly wrinkled, low, dense and velutinous or with a sparse, floccose overgrowth; mycelium inconspicuous, white; conidial heads borne in a continuous, densely packed layer, Greyish Turquoise to Dark Turquoise (24-25E-F5); clear exudate sometimes produced in small amounts; reverse pale or greenish. Colonies on MEA 40-60 mm diam, similar to those on CYA but less dense and with conidia in duller colours (24-25E-F3); reverse uncoloured or greyish. Colonies on G25N less than 10 mm diam, sometimes only germination, of white mycelium. No growth at 5°C. At 37°C, colonies covering the available area, i.e. a whole Petri dish in 2 days from a single point inoculum, of similar appearance to those on CYA at 25°C, but with conidial columns longer and conidia darker, greenish grey to pure grey.

Conidiophores borne from surface hyphae, stipes 200-400 µm long, sometimes sinuous, with colourless, thin, smooth walls, enlarging gradually into pyriform vesicles; vesicles 20-30 µm diam, fertile over half or more of the enlarged area, bearing phialides only, the lateral ones characteristically bent so that the tips are approximately parallel to the stipe axis; phialides crowded, 6-8 µm long; conidia spherical to subspheroidal, 2.5-3.0 µm diam, with finely roughened or spinose walls, forming radiate heads at first, then well defined columns of conidia.

Distinctive features

This distinctive species can be recognised in the unopened Petri dish by its broad, velutinous, bluish colonies bearing characteristic, well defined columns of conidia. Growth at 37°C is exceptionally rapid. Conidial heads are also diagnostic: pyriform vesicles bear crowded phialides which bend to be roughly parallel to the stipe axis. Care should be exercised in handling cultures of this species.

A. fumigatus A photograph of part of the upper lung lobe of an immunosuppressed patient. The lung tissue shows extenive areas of necrosis due to invasive colonisation.
A. fumigatus A photograph of part of the upper lung lobe of an immunosuppressed patient. The lung tissue shows extenive areas of necrosis due to invasive colonisation.
Aspergillus fumigatus Necrotic lung tissue in culture Af=Colony of Aspergillus fumigatus B=bacterial colonies L=lung tissue
Aspergillus fumigatus Necrotic lung tissue in culture Af=Colony of Aspergillus fumigatus B=bacterial colonies L=lung tissue
Aspergillus fumigatus A part of the mycelium in a stained sputum plug showing the dichotomously branched hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus.
Aspergillus fumigatus A part of the mycelium in a stained sputum plug showing the dichotomously branched hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus.

Colonies on CYA 40-60 mm diam, plane or lightly wrinkled, low, dense and velutinous or with a sparse, floccose overgrowth; mycelium inconspicuous, white; conidial heads borne in a continuous, densely packed layer, Greyish Turquoise to Dark Turquoise (24-25E-F5); clear exudate sometimes produced in small amounts; reverse pale or greenish. Colonies on MEA 40-60 mm diam, similar to those on CYA but less dense and with conidia in duller colours (24-25E-F3); reverse uncoloured or greyish. Colonies on G25N less than 10 mm diam, sometimes only germination, of white mycelium. No growth at 5°C. At 37°C, colonies covering the available area, i.e. a whole Petri dish in 2 days from a single point inoculum, of similar appearance to those on CYA at 25°C, but with conidial columns longer and conidia darker, greenish grey to pure grey.

Conidiophores borne from surface hyphae, stipes 200-400 µm long, sometimes sinuous, with colourless, thin, smooth walls, enlarging gradually into pyriform vesicles; vesicles 20-30 µm diam, fertile over half or more of the enlarged area, bearing phialides only, the lateral ones characteristically bent so that the tips are approximately parallel to the stipe axis; phialides crowded, 6-8 µm long; conidia spherical to subspheroidal, 2.5-3.0 µm diam, with finely roughened or spinose walls, forming radiate heads at first, then well defined columns of conidia.

Distinctive features

This distinctive species can be recognised in the unopened Petri dish by its broad, velutinous, bluish colonies bearing characteristic, well defined columns of conidia. Growth at 37°C is exceptionally rapid. Conidial heads are also diagnostic: pyriform vesicles bear crowded phialides which bend to be roughly parallel to the stipe axis. Care should be exercised in handling cultures of this species.

Aspergillus fumigatus aspergilloma removed from the lung cavity seen in section.Staining was with methenamine/silver and light green. The structure shows zonation probably due to variations in the growth rate of mycelium(deep brown). A mucus layer(stained green) read more...
Aspergillus fumigatus aspergilloma removed from the lung cavity seen in section.Staining was with methenamine/silver and light green. The structure shows zonation probably due to variations in the growth rate of mycelium(deep brown). A mucus layer(stained green) read more...

Colonies on CYA 40-60 mm diam, plane or lightly wrinkled, low, dense and velutinous or with a sparse, floccose overgrowth; mycelium inconspicuous, white; conidial heads borne in a continuous, densely packed layer, Greyish Turquoise to Dark Turquoise (24-25E-F5); clear exudate sometimes produced in small amounts; reverse pale or greenish. Colonies on MEA 40-60 mm diam, similar to those on CYA but less dense and with conidia in duller colours (24-25E-F3); reverse uncoloured or greyish. Colonies on G25N less than 10 mm diam, sometimes only germination, of white mycelium. No growth at 5°C. At 37°C, colonies covering the available area, i.e. a whole Petri dish in 2 days from a single point inoculum, of similar appearance to those on CYA at 25°C, but with conidial columns longer and conidia darker, greenish grey to pure grey.

Conidiophores borne from surface hyphae, stipes 200-400 µm long, sometimes sinuous, with colourless, thin, smooth walls, enlarging gradually into pyriform vesicles; vesicles 20-30 µm diam, fertile over half or more of the enlarged area, bearing phialides only, the lateral ones characteristically bent so that the tips are approximately parallel to the stipe axis; phialides crowded, 6-8 µm long; conidia spherical to subspheroidal, 2.5-3.0 µm diam, with finely roughened or spinose walls, forming radiate heads at first, then well defined columns of conidia.

Distinctive features

This distinctive species can be recognised in the unopened Petri dish by its broad, velutinous, bluish colonies bearing characteristic, well defined columns of conidia. Growth at 37°C is exceptionally rapid. Conidial heads are also diagnostic: pyriform vesicles bear crowded phialides which bend to be roughly parallel to the stipe axis. Care should be exercised in handling cultures of this species.

Aspergillus fumigatus The growth isolated from the aspergilloma in the presence of living cells of the three bacterial species in culture.The most marked inhibition occurred with Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P) and Haemophilus influenzae(H) and to a much lesser extent with read more...
Aspergillus fumigatus The growth isolated from the aspergilloma in the presence of living cells of the three bacterial species in culture.The most marked inhibition occurred with Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P) and Haemophilus influenzae(H) and to a much lesser extent with read more...

Colonies on CYA 40-60 mm diam, plane or lightly wrinkled, low, dense and velutinous or with a sparse, floccose overgrowth; mycelium inconspicuous, white; conidial heads borne in a continuous, densely packed layer, Greyish Turquoise to Dark Turquoise (24-25E-F5); clear exudate sometimes produced in small amounts; reverse pale or greenish. Colonies on MEA 40-60 mm diam, similar to those on CYA but less dense and with conidia in duller colours (24-25E-F3); reverse uncoloured or greyish. Colonies on G25N less than 10 mm diam, sometimes only germination, of white mycelium. No growth at 5°C. At 37°C, colonies covering the available area, i.e. a whole Petri dish in 2 days from a single point inoculum, of similar appearance to those on CYA at 25°C, but with conidial columns longer and conidia darker, greenish grey to pure grey.

Conidiophores borne from surface hyphae, stipes 200-400 µm long, sometimes sinuous, with colourless, thin, smooth walls, enlarging gradually into pyriform vesicles; vesicles 20-30 µm diam, fertile over half or more of the enlarged area, bearing phialides only, the lateral ones characteristically bent so that the tips are approximately parallel to the stipe axis; phialides crowded, 6-8 µm long; conidia spherical to subspheroidal, 2.5-3.0 µm diam, with finely roughened or spinose walls, forming radiate heads at first, then well defined columns of conidia.

Distinctive features

This distinctive species can be recognised in the unopened Petri dish by its broad, velutinous, bluish colonies bearing characteristic, well defined columns of conidia. Growth at 37°C is exceptionally rapid. Conidial heads are also diagnostic: pyriform vesicles bear crowded phialides which bend to be roughly parallel to the stipe axis. Care should be exercised in handling cultures of this species.

Aspergillus fumigatus Sections of colonised alveoli On the left, the conidiophores sporulate freely, on the right they are seen to cease development at the phialide stage. Carbon deposits are clearly seen here.A=alveolus, As=alveolar septum, C=conidiophore, P=phialide
Aspergillus fumigatus Sections of colonised alveoli On the left, the conidiophores sporulate freely, on the right they are seen to cease development at the phialide stage. Carbon deposits are clearly seen here.A=alveolus, As=alveolar septum, C=conidiophore, P=phialide

Colonies on CYA 40-60 mm diam, plane or lightly wrinkled, low, dense and velutinous or with a sparse, floccose overgrowth; mycelium inconspicuous, white; conidial heads borne in a continuous, densely packed layer, Greyish Turquoise to Dark Turquoise (24-25E-F5); clear exudate sometimes produced in small amounts; reverse pale or greenish. Colonies on MEA 40-60 mm diam, similar to those on CYA but less dense and with conidia in duller colours (24-25E-F3); reverse uncoloured or greyish. Colonies on G25N less than 10 mm diam, sometimes only germination, of white mycelium. No growth at 5°C. At 37°C, colonies covering the available area, i.e. a whole Petri dish in 2 days from a single point inoculum, of similar appearance to those on CYA at 25°C, but with conidial columns longer and conidia darker, greenish grey to pure grey.

Conidiophores borne from surface hyphae, stipes 200-400 µm long, sometimes sinuous, with colourless, thin, smooth walls, enlarging gradually into pyriform vesicles; vesicles 20-30 µm diam, fertile over half or more of the enlarged area, bearing phialides only, the lateral ones characteristically bent so that the tips are approximately parallel to the stipe axis; phialides crowded, 6-8 µm long; conidia spherical to subspheroidal, 2.5-3.0 µm diam, with finely roughened or spinose walls, forming radiate heads at first, then well defined columns of conidia.

Distinctive features

This distinctive species can be recognised in the unopened Petri dish by its broad, velutinous, bluish colonies bearing characteristic, well defined columns of conidia. Growth at 37°C is exceptionally rapid. Conidial heads are also diagnostic: pyriform vesicles bear crowded phialides which bend to be roughly parallel to the stipe axis. Care should be exercised in handling cultures of this species.

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