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Nancy Keller
Nancy Keller

Department of Medical Microbiology
University of Wisconsin

My research focus lies in genetically dissecting those aspects of Aspergillus spp. that render them potent pathogens and superb natural product machines. My laboratory’s research includes elucidation of fungal sporulation and host/pathogen interactions; processes intimately linked to secondary metabolite (e.g. mycotoxin) production. My tactic has been to use the genetic model Aspergillus nidulans to elucidate important biological processes in this genus and then carry this information to the plant pathogens A. flavus and A. parasiticus and the human pathogen A. fumigatus. The former two pathogens contaminate seed crops worldwide with aflatoxin, the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known. The latter pathogen is now tied with Candida as the most serious human mycopathogen in developed countries where it can cause invasive aspergillosis, a disease with a mortality rate ranging from 50 to 90%.

Areas of fungal biology that my lab has been central in developing include:

I. Genetic Regulation of Secondary Metabolism and the Role of Toxic Metabolites in Fungal Virulence.

  • Bok J.-W, Balajee S A, Marr K A, Andes D, Fog Nielsen K. Frisvad J C. Keller N P (2005) LaeA, a regulator of morphogenetic fungal virulence factors. Euk Cell 4:1574-1582.
  • Perrin RM, Fedorova ND, Bok JW, Cramer RA, Wortman JR, Kim HS, Nierman WC, Keller NP. (2007) Transcriptional regulation of chemical diversity in Aspergillus fumigatus by LaeA. PloS Pathogens Apr;3(4):e50.
  • Shwab E., Bok JW, Tribus M, Galehr J, Graessle S, Keller NP. (2007) Histone deacetylase activity regulates chemical diversity in Aspergillus. Euk Cell 6:1656-64

II. Gene silencing processes.

  • Hammond T M, Bok J-W, Andrewski MD, Reyes-Domínguez Y, Scazzocchio C, Keller NP. (2008) RNA silencing gene truncation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Euk Cell Dec 7(2):339-49
  • Hammond T M, Andrewski MD, Roossinck M, Keller NP. (2008) Aspergillus mycoviruses are targets and suppressors of RNA silencing. Euk Cell 2007 7(2):350-7
  • Bok JW, Noordermeer D, Kale S P, Keller NP (2006) Secondary metabolic gene cluster silencing in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Microbiol 61:1636-1645

III. Host/fungal signaling.

  • Tsitsigiannis D I, Bok J-W, Andes D, Fog Nielsen K, Frisvad J C, Keller N P (2005) Aspergillus cyclooxygenase-like enzymes are associated with prostaglandin production and virulence. Infect Immun: 73:4548-4559.
  • Brodhagen M, Tsitsigiannis D, Hornung E, Goebel C, Feussner I, Keller NP. (2008) Reciprocal oxylipin-mediated cross talk in the Aspergillus/seed pathosystem. Mol Microbiol 67:378-391

Contact details:

Nancy Keller
3476 Microbial Science Building
Department Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Department of Plant Pathology
1550 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706
phone (608) 262-9795
fax (608) 262-8418
[email protected]

Geoffrey Turner
Geoffrey Turner

Professor of Genetics
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
University of Sheffield 
Sheffield S10 2TN

I have carried out research on filamentous fungi such asAspergillus nidulans andPenicillium 
chrysogenum for about 35 years, on topics such as mitochondrial inheritance, methods for genetic manipulation of fungi, and genetics of penicillin biosynthesis.

Current research interests include the molecular genetics and genomics of secondary metabolism, and polar growth of filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus nidulans and the opportunistic human and animal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

Secondary metabolism studies have been focussed on the structure and function of non ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), exemplified by ACV synthetase, which assembles the 
tripeptide precursor of penicillin from constituent amino acids. This multienzyme complex is a member of a large family of enzymes which carry out non-ribosomal peptide synthesis in fungi and bacteria, making a wide variety of antibiotics and toxins. We have also investigated the phosphopantetheine transferases required for post-translational modification of peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases.

 Recent genome sequencing projects on A. nidulans and A. fumigatushave revealed an abundance of novel secondary metabolic gene clusters, and we are applying a combination of genetic and chemical approaches to determine their products, some of which have activity against mammalian cells.

Selected earlier publications

  • Rowlands, R.T. and Turner, G. (1976).  Maternal inheritance of extranuclear mitochondrial markers in Aspergillus nidulans.  Genet. Res., Camb. 28, 281-290.
  • Ballance, D.J., Buxton, F.P. and Turner, G. (1983).  Transformation of Aspergillus nidulans by the orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene of Neurospora crassa.  Biochem. Res. Commun. 112, 284-289
  • Smith, D.J., Burnham, M.K.R., Bull, J.H., Hodgson, J.E., Ward, J.M., Browne, P., Brown, J. Barton, B., Earl, A.J. and Turner, G. (1990).  ß-lactam antibiotic biosynthetic genes have been conserved in clusters in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.  EMBO J. 9, 741-747.

Selected recent publications

  • Leeder, A.C. and Turner, G. (2007) Characterisation ofAspergillus nidulans polarisome component BemA.  Fungal Genetics and Biology  Dec 8 [Epub ahead of print]
  • Maiya, S.M., Grundman, A., Li. S.M., Li, X. & Turner, G. (2007) Identification of a hybrid PKS/NRPS required for pseurotin A biosynthesis in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Chembiochem 8 1736-43.
  • Pel, H.J. et al. (2007) Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88 Nature Biotechnology 25, 221-31.
  • Maiya, S.M., Grundman, A., Li, S.M. and Turner, G. (2006) The fumitremorgin gene cluster of Aspergillus fumigatus: identification of a cluster: identification of a gene encoding brevianamide F synthetase. Chembiochem, 7, 1062-1069
  • Johns, S.A., Leeder, A.C., Safaie, M. and Turner, G. (2006) Depletion of Aspergillus nidulans cotA causes a severe polarity defect which is not suppressed by the nuclear migration mutation nudA2. Molecular Genetics and Genomics, 275:593-604.
  • Nierman et al. (2005) Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Nature, 438, 1151-1156
  • Keller, N. P., Turner, G. and Bennett, J. W. (2005) Fungal secondary metabolism – from biochemistry to genomics. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 3, 937-947.
  • Gatherar, I., Pollerman, S., Dunn-Coleman, N. and Turner, G. (2004) Identification of a novel gene hbrB required for polarised growth in Aspergillus nidulans. Fungal Genetics and Biology 41, 463-471.
  • Keszenman-Pereyra, D., Lawrence, S., Twfieg, M.-E., Price, J. and Turner, G. (2003) The npgA/cfwA gene encodes a putative 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase which is essential for penicillin biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans. Curr Genet, 43, 186-190, 2003
  • Gatherar, I., Pollerman, S., Dunn-Coleman, N. and Turner, G. (2004) Identification of a novel gene hbrB required for polarised growth in Aspergillus nidulans. Fungal Genetics and Biology 41, 463-471.
  • Zarrin, M. Leeder, A., Turner, G. (2005) A rapid method for promoter exchange in Aspergillus nidulans using recombinant PCR. Fungal Genetics and Biology 42, 1-8.


    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
    University of Sheffield 
    Sheffield S10 2TN
    South Yorkshire 
    Phone 0114 2226211
    [email protected]

William J. Steinbach
William J. Steinbach

Assistant Professor , Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University,USA

Dr. Steinbach is a graduate of University of North Carolina School of Medicine and trained in Pediatrics at Stanford University.  He later completed a pediatric infectious diseases fellowship at Duke University.  He is an associate researcher at the Duke Clinical Research Institute. 

Dr. Steinbach has published over 30 peer-reviewed articles and several book chapters, generally concerning fungal disease and antifungal agents.  He is involved in several clinical trials of newer antifungal agents, including involvement with the NIAID Bacteriology and Mycoses Study Group.  To focus on the issues of fungal disease and treatment in pediatrics, he is also the co-director of the Pediatric Fungal Network.

His basic science interests include in vitro, in vivo, and molecular exploration of A. fumigatus, focusing on mechanisms of pathogenesis as well as optimizing antifungal therapies.  Dr. Steinbach’s clinical interest focuses on invasive aspergillosis diagnosis and management, as well as pediatric fungal infections and the unique characteristics they reveal.  In an effort to unite his basic science and clinical interests, Dr. Steinbach is a co-chairman of the Advances Against Aspergillosis international conference ( 

Recent key contributions to the literature:

  • Steinbach WJ, Stevens DA.  Review of newer antifungal and immunomodulatory strategies for invasive aspergillosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases  2003;37(suppl 3):S157-87.
  • Blankenship JR, Steinbach WJ, Perfect JR, Heitman J.  Teaching old drugs new tricks: Reincarnating immunosuppressants  as antifungals.  Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs 2003;4:192-199.
  • Steinbach WJ, Perfect JR.  Newer antifungal therapy for emerging fungal pathogens.  International Journal of Infectious Diseases  2003;7:5-10.
  • Steinbach WJStevens DA, Denning DW.  Combination and sequential antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis:  Review of published in vitro and in vivo interactions and 6281 cases from 1966-2001.  Clinical Infectious Diseases  2003;37(suppl 3):S188-224.
  • Benjamin DK Jr., Poole C, Steinbach WJ, Rowen JL, Walsh TJ.  Neonatal candidemia and end-organ damage:  A critical appraisal of the literature using meta-analytic techniques. Pediatrics  2003;112:634-640.
  • Benjamin DK Jr., DeLong ER, Steinbach WJ, Cotton CM, Walsh TJ, Clark R.  Empirical therapy for neonatal candidemia in very low birthweight infants.  Pediatrics  2003;112:543-547.
  • Steinbach WJ, Marr KA.  Mould infections following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  In:  Bowden RA, Ljungman P, Paya CV  (eds).  Transplant Infections, Second Edition, Philadelphia.  Lipppincott Williams and Wilkins.  2003;466-482
  • Steinbach WJ, Schell WA, Blankenship JR, Onyewu C, Heitman J, Perfect JR. In vitro interactions between antifungals and immunosuppressants against Aspergillus fumigatus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 May;48(5):1664-9.
  • Steinbach WJ, Benjamin DK Jr, Kontoyiannis DP, Perfect JR, Lutsar I, Marr KA, Lionakis MS, Torres HA, Jafri H, Walsh TJ. Infections due to Aspergillus terreus: a multicenter retrospective analysis of 83 cases. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 15;39(2):192-8.
  • Steinbach WJ, Perfect JR, Schell WA, Walsh TJ, Benjamin DK Jr. In vitro analyses, animal models, and 60 clinical cases of invasive Aspergillus terreus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Sep;48(9):3217-25. Review.
  • Steinbach WJ, Benjamin DK Jr, Trasi SA, Miller JL, Schell WA, Zaas AK, Foster WM, Perfect JR. Value of an inhalational model of invasive aspergillosis. Med Mycol. 2004 Oct;42(5):417-25.
  • Steinbach WJ, Singh N, Miller JL, Benjamin DK Jr, Schell WA, Heitman J, Perfect JR. In vitro interactions between antifungals and immunosuppressants against Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from transplant and nontransplant patients.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Dec;48(12):4922-5.
  • Steinbach WJ. Pediatric aspergillosis: disease and treatment differences in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Apr;24(4):358-64. Review.
  • Steinbach WJ. Antifungal agents in children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005 Jun;52(3):895-915, viii. Review.
  • Dvorak CC, Steinbach WJ, Brown JM, Agarwal R. Risks and outcomes of invasive fungal infections in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005 Oct;36(7):621-9.
  • Steinbach WJ. New findings and unique aspects in pediatric aspergillosis. Med Mycol. 2005 May;43 Suppl 1:S261-5.
  • Steinbach WJ. Combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis: utilizing new targeting strategies. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord. 2005 Sep;5(3):203-10. Review.
  • Steinbach WJ, Benjamin DK. New antifungal agents under development in children and neonates. Curr Opin Infect Dis.2005 Dec;18(6):484-9.


Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Box 3499
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, NC  27710 USA

Tel +1 (919) 684-6335
Fax +1 (919) 416-9268
Email:  [email protected]

David Paterson
David Paterson

David Paterson is a newly appointed Professor of Infectious Diseases at the University of Queensland, and Consultant Infectious Diseases Physician and Microbiologist at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. His prior appointment was Director of the Antibiotic Management Program at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. He is the author of more than 100 peer-reviewed publications in the field of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology. His specific areas of interest are in antibiotic resistance in Gram negative bacilli and optimisation of antimicrobial use in the critically ill and the immunocompromised. He was the winner of the American Society for Microbiology's Merck Irving Siegal Award awarded at ICAAC 2000 and has been an advisor to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).

Contact details:

Professor of Infectious Diseases at the University of Queensland
Consultant Infectious Diseases Physician and Microbiologist at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Australia

David W. Denning
David W. Denning

Professor of Infectious Diseases in Global Health and Consultant in Infectious Diseases and Medical Mycology, Wythenshawe Hospital and University of Manchester and President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections.

Graduate of Guy's Hospital, University of London, 1980. Clinical training in internal medicine, infectious diseases, microbiology, paediatrics and haematology in London, Glasgow and California (1980-1990). Research training at the MRC Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, UK (1985-87) and Stanford University, California, USA (1987-1990). Granted a personal chair by Manchester University in 2005.

My clinical interests are in fungal diseases, immunocompromised patients and complex hospital infection problems.

My research interests relate to antifungal susceptibility testing and resistance, pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis, clinical studies of antifungal agents, Aspergillusgenomics and the burden of fungal infections globally and in different countries.

In addition to continuing clinical practice and research, I was instrumental in starting a biotechnology company called F2G. F2G has identified several new promising antifungal drug candidates , one of which is shortly to be studied in human volunteers. I retain a very small number of F2G shares, but no longer consult for it.

In 2006, I founded Myconostica, a molecular diagnostics spin-out of The University of Manchester. Myconostica developed and commercialised rapid real-time molecular diagnostic tests for Aspergillus and Pneumocystis, before being acquired by Lab21 in May 2011. I advise Trinity Biotech (who now handle Myconostica products) on clinical aspects of fungal diagnosis as a consultantI also advise T2 Biosystems (diagnostics), GSK (Vaccines) and give talks on behalf of Astellas, Pfizer and Gilead. In 2013,I became President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal infections.

Key contributions to the literature:

  1. Denning DW, Clemons KV, Hanson LH, Stevens DA. Restriction endonuclase analysis of total cellular DNA of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates of geographically and epidemiologically diverse origin. J Infect Dis 1990; 162: 1151-1158.
  2. Denning DW, Stevens DA. Antifungal and surgical treatment of invasive aspergillosis: review of 2121 published cases. Rev Infect Dis 1990; 12: 1147-1201.
  3. Denning DW, Follansbee S, Scolaro M, Norris S, Edelstein D, Stevens DA. Pulmonary aspergillosis in AIDS. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 654-662.
  4. Birch M, Robson G, Law D, Denning DW. Evidence of multiple phospholipase activities ofAspergillus fumigatusInfect Immun 1996;64:751-755.
  5. Denning DW, Venkateswarlu K, Oakley K, Anderson MJ, Manning NJ, Stevens DA, Warnock DW, Kelly SL. Itraconazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatusAntimicrob Ag Chemother1997; 41: 1364-1368.
  6. Verweij PE, Denning DW. The challenge of invasive aspergillosis: Increasing numbers in diverse patient groups. Int J Infect Dis 1997;2:61-63.
  7. Denning DW. Invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:781-805.
  8. Stevens DA, Kan VL, Judson MA, Morrison VA, Dummer S, Denning DW, Bennett JE, Walsh TJ, Patterson TF, Pankey GA. Practice guidelines for diseases caused by AspergillusClin Infect Dis 2000; 30: 6696-709
  9. Brookman JL, Denning DW. Molecular genetics in Aspergillus fumigatusCurr Op Microbiol2000;3:468-474.
  10. Moore CB, Sayers N, Mosquero J, Slaven J, Denning DW. Antifungal drug resistance inAspergillusJ Infection 2000;41:203-220.
  11. Ascioglu S, Rex JH, de Pauw B,, Bennett JE, Bille J, Crokaert F, Denning DW, Donnelly JP, Edwards JE, Erjavec Z, Fiere D, Lortholary O, Maertens J, Meis JF, Patterson T, Ritter J, Selleslag D, Stevens DA, Walsh TJ. Defining opportunistic invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer: An international consensus. Clin Infect Dis2002:34:7-14.
  12. Herbrecht R, Denning DW, Patterson TF, Bennett JE, Greene RE, Oestmann JW, Kern W, Marr KA, Ribaud P, Lortholary O,Sylvester R, de Pauw B, Rubin RH, Wingard JR, Stark PS, Durand C, Caillot D, Thiel E, Chandrasekar PH, Hodges MR, Schlamm HT, Troke PF. Randomised comparison of voriconazole and amphotericin B in primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis.N Engl J Med 2002;347:408-15.
  13. Denning DW, Riniotis K, Dobrashian R, Sambatakou H. Chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis: Case series, proposed nomenclature and review. Clin Infect Dis 2003;37 (Suppl 3):S265-80.
  14. Boyd AE, Modi S, Howard SJ, Moore CB, Keevil BG, Denning DW. Adverse reactions to voriconazole. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 15;39(8):1241-4.
  15. Maertens J, Raad I, Petrikkos G, Boogaerts M, Selleslag D, Petersen FB, Sable CA, Kartsonis NA, Ngai A, Taylor A, Patterson TF, Denning DW, Walsh TJ; Caspofungin Salvage Aspergillosis Study Group. Efficacy and safety of caspofungin for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of conventional antifungal therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Dec 1;39(11):1563-71.
  16. O'Driscoll BR, Hopkinson LC, Denning DW. Mold sensitization is common amongst patients with severe asthma requiring multiple hospital admissions. BMC Pulm Med. 2005 Feb 18;5(1):4.
  17. Paoletti M, Rydholm C, Schwier EU, Anderson MJ, Szakacs G, Lutzoni F, Debeaupuis JP, Latge JP, Denning DW, Dyer PS. Evidence for sexuality in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Curr Biol. 2005 Jul 12;15(13):1242-8.
  18. Hope WW, Walsh TJ, Denning DW. Laboratory diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Oct;5(10):609-22.
  19. Hope WW, Walsh TJ, Denning DW. Related Articles, Links The invasive and saprophytic syndromes due to Aspergillus spp. Med Mycol. 2005 May;43 Suppl 1:S207-38. Review.
  20. Nierman W, Pain A, Anderson MJ, ... Hall N, Barrell B, Denning DW. Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Nature 2005;438:1151-6.
  21. Denning DW, O'Driscoll BR, Powell G, Chew F, Atherton G, Vyas A, Miles J, Morris J, Niven RM. Randomized controlled trial of oral antifungal treatment for severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS), the FAST study. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2009;179:11-8.
  22. Denning DW, Park S, Lass-Florl C, Fraczek MG, Kirwan M, Gore R, Smith J, Bueid A, Bowyer P, Perlin DS. High frequency triazole resistance found in non-culturable Aspergillus fumigatusfrom lungs of patients with chronic fungal disease. Clin Infect Dis 2011;52:1123-9.
  23. Denning DW, Pleuvry A, Cole DC. Global burden of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis as a sequel to tuberculosis. Bull WHO 2011;89:864-72.
  24. Brown GD, Denning DW, Gow NAR, Levitz S, Netea M, White T. Human fungal infections: the hidden killers. Sci Transl Med 2012:4:165rv13.
  25. Denning DW, Pleuvry A, Cole DC. Global burden of ABPA in adults with asthma and its complication chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Med Mycol 2013;51:361-70.
  26. Baxter CG, Dunn G, Jones AM, Webb K, Gore R, Richardson MD, Denning DW. Classification of aspergillosis in adult cystic fibrosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2103. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 May 29. pii: S0091-6749(13)00598-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.04.007

David W. Denning FRCP FRCPath FIDSA FMedSci
Professor of Medicine and Medical Mycology
Director, National Aspergillosis Centre
Education and Research Centre
University Hospital of South Manchester (Wythenshawe Hospital)
Southmoor Road
Manchester M23 9LT UK
E-mail [email protected]

Michael Day
Jens C. Frisvad
Jens C. Frisvad

Professor, dr. techn., Ph.D.

Industrial mycology, Biodiversity, Extralites.

See institutional webpage for more details

Recent key contributions to the literature:

  • Larsen TO, Smedsgaard J, Nielsen KF, Hansen ME, Frisvad JC. Phenotypic taxonomy and metabolite profiling in microbial drug discovery. Nat Prod Rep. 2005;22(6):672-695. 
  • Frisvad JC, Skouboe P, Samson RA. Related Articles, Links Taxonomic comparison of three different groups of aflatoxin producers and a new efficient producer of aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin and 3-O-methylsterigmatocystin, Aspergillus rambellii sp. nov. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2005 Jul;28(5):442-53. 
  • Mapari SA, Nielsen KF, Larsen TO, Frisvad JC, Meyer AS, Thrane U. Exploring fungal biodiversity for the production of water-soluble pigments as potential natural food colorants. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2005 Apr;16(2):231-8
  • de Vries RP, Frisvad JC, van de Vondervoort PJ, Burgers K, Kuijpers AF, Samson RA, Visser J. Aspergillus vadensis, a new species of the group of black Aspergilli. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2005 Apr;87(3):195-203.
  • Frisvad JC, Samson RA. Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2004 Nov;27(6):672-80.
  • de Vries RP, Burgers K, van de Vondervoort PJ, Frisvad JC, Samson RA, Visser J. A new black Aspergillus species, A. vadensis, is a promising host for homologous and heterologous protein production. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Jul;70(7):3954-9.
  • Robert A. Samson, Jos A.M.P. Houbraken, Angelina F.A. Kuijpers, J. Mick Frank and Jens C. Frisvad. New ochratoxin A or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus section Nigri.STUDIES IN MYCOLOGY; 2004:50:45–61. 
  • Frisvad JC, Samson RA, Smedsgaard J. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B, B and sterigmatocystin. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2004;38(5):440-5.
  • Schuster E, Dunn-Coleman N, Frisvad JC, Van Dijck PW. On the safety of Aspergillus niger--a review. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002 Aug;59(4-5):426-35. Epub 2002 Jun 25.


Technical University of Denmark
Center for Microbial Biotechnology 
Building 221
DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby

Tel +45 45 25 26 26 
Fax +45 45 88 49 22 
Email: [email protected]