All kinds of microbes, including Aspergillus can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals.

Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides.

Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants.


Biogenic Weathering of Mineral Substrates (Review)
Chizhikova et. al. (2016)
Oxalate production by fungi: significance in geomycology, biodeterioration and bioremediation
G. M. Gadd et. al (2014)
Fungi as Geologic Agents
Katja Sterflinger (2010)
Biohydrometallurgy for Nonsulfidic Minerals: A Review
Nalini Jain and D. K. Sharma (2010)
Geomicrobiology of Eukaryotic Microorganisms
Geoffrey M. Gadd and John A. Raven (2010)
Eukaryote-Dominated Biofilms and Their Significance in Acidic Environments
Sandra S. Brake & Stephen T. Hasiotis (2010)
Bacterial and fungal geomicrobiology: a problem with communities?
G. M. GADD (2008)

Geomycology: biogeochemical transformations of rocks, minerals, metals and radionuclides by fungi, bioweathering and bioremediation

Geoffrey M. Gadd (2007)

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Author Title
Man B, Wang H, Xiang X, Wang R, Yun Y, Gong L. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China.
Eric P. Verrecchia Fungi and Sediments
EUAN P. BURFORD, MARTIN KIERANS & GEOFFREY M. GADD Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata
Andrew D. Bowen, Fordyce A. Davidson, Robert Keatch, Geoffrey M. Gadd Effect of nutrient availability on hyphal maturation and topographical sensing in Aspergillus niger
Geoffrey Michael Gadd, Jaleh Bahri-Esfahani, Qianwei Li, Young Joon Rhee, Zhan Wei, Marina Fomina, Xinjin Liang Oxalate production by fungi: significance in geomycology, biodeterioration and bioremediation


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