All kinds of microbes, including Aspergillus can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals.

Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides.

Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants.


Biogenic Weathering of Mineral Substrates (Review)
Chizhikova et. al. (2016)
Oxalate production by fungi: significance in geomycology, biodeterioration and bioremediation
G. M. Gadd et. al (2014)
Fungi as Geologic Agents
Katja Sterflinger (2010)
Biohydrometallurgy for Nonsulfidic Minerals: A Review
Nalini Jain and D. K. Sharma (2010)
Geomicrobiology of Eukaryotic Microorganisms
Geoffrey M. Gadd and John A. Raven (2010)
Eukaryote-Dominated Biofilms and Their Significance in Acidic Environments
Sandra S. Brake & Stephen T. Hasiotis (2010)
Bacterial and fungal geomicrobiology: a problem with communities?
G. M. GADD (2008)

Geomycology: biogeochemical transformations of rocks, minerals, metals and radionuclides by fungi, bioweathering and bioremediation

Geoffrey M. Gadd (2007)

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Chaplow JS, Beresford NA, and Barnett CL Post-Chernobyl surveys of radiocaesium in soil, vegetation, wildlife and fungi in Great Britain
Achal, V. Mukherjee, A. Reddy, M. S. Microbial Concrete: Way to Enhance the Durability of Building Structures
Vaughan, MJ (Vaughan, Michael J.), Maier, RM (Maier, Raina M.), Pryor, BM (Pryor, Barry M.) Fungal communities on speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, USA
Chen, S (Chen, S.) Lian, B (Lian, B.), Zheng, HY (Zheng, H. Y.), Dong, FQ (Dong, F. Q.) Sr Isotope Tracing of Differences in the Effects of Microorganisms on Weathering of Calcite and Apatite
Wei, Z (Wei, Zhan), Hillier, S (Hillier, Stephen), Gadd, GM (Gadd, Geoffrey M.) Biotransformation of manganese oxides by fungi: solubilization and production of manganese oxalate biominerals


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