Prospective evaluation of procalcitonin in adults with non-neutropenic fever after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation


Ortega M, Rovira M, Filella X, Martinez JA, Almela M, Puig J, Carreras E, Mensa J
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2006 Mar; 37(5):499-502


The aim of this study was to analyze whether procalcitonin (PCT) is a diagnostic marker of infectious diseases during the non-neutropenic period in patients who have received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We included 65 patients in whom an allogeneic HSCT was performed in a 2-year period (April 2002-July 2004). PCT levels were monitored in every febrile episode by an immunoluminometric assay. Febrile episodes were classified according to the final diagnosis in: fever of unknown origin, microbiologically or clinically documented infection and non-infectious fever. Fifty-two febrile episodes in the non-neutropenic period were included in the study. Out of these 52, 26 had an infectious etiology: 11 fulfilled criteria for probable or proven invasive aspergillosis (IA), three were classified as possible invasive fungal infection (IFI) and 12 episodes were caused by other infections. Mean values of PCT on the first day of admission were: 8.0 (+/-4.9) in probable-proven IA (P=0.013, Kruskall-Wallis), 4.5 (+/-3.4) in possible IFI and 1.5 (+/-0.9) in infections other than IFI. Therefore, we could conclude that during the non-neutropenic phases of allogeneic HSCT, a high PCT value is associated significantly with IA.