Multiplex PCR-based methods for simultaneous detection and quantification of different mycotoxin-producing Penicillia are useful tools to be used in food safety programs. These rapid and sensitive techniques allow taking corrective actions during food processing or storage for avoiding accumulation of mycotoxins in them. In this chapter, three multiplex PCR-based methods to detect at least patulin- and ochratoxin A-producing Penicillia are detailed. Two of them are different multiplex real-time PCR suitable for monitoring and quantifying toxigenic Penicillium using the nonspecific dye SYBR Green and specific hydrolysis probes (TaqMan). All of them successfully use the same target genes involved in the biosynthesis of such mycotoxins for designing primers and/or probes.