Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Acute Leukemia and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients
Patients with acute leukemia (AL) and hematologic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients are at increased risk for the development of invasive fungal infections (IFI) due to prolonged neutropenia and severe immunosupression. The incidence of IFI in these patients has increased in recent years , which likely reflects changes in clinical practice including escalation of treatment intensity; more frequent use of unrelated, mismatched or alternative donors as stem cell source; rising number of multiple transplantations; and more frequent use of T-cell depleted grafts [2-3]. IFI are associated with high morbidity and mortality in the patients with AL and represent a leading cause of infectious mortality in allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) recipients. Therefore, effective preventive strategies, accurate diagnostic techniques and optimal treatment approaches are required for an optimal management of high risk patients with AL and HCT recipients.