Patient MD with kyphoscoliosis and chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis and an aspergilloma. Patient exhibited azole resistant A. fumigatus.
Image A. This CT scan cut shown shows a grossly distorted thorax because of the kyphoscoliosis, a nearly normal appearing left lung, her trachea at an odd angle, demonstrating the normal cartilage rings and an aspergilloma in a cavity which has replaced the right upper lobe. The cavity is surrounded by significant pleural thickening and fibrosis.
Image B. The other cut (slightly inferior) shows a complex large cavity and some smaller ones posteriorly, with some material consistent with a fungal ball within the large cavity. There is a separate cavity anteriorly and small air spaces within the extensive pleural thickening. Her trachea is widened. the left lung appears normal.
This patient with repaired juvenile scoliosis first recognised that she had pulmonary aspergillosis when she coughed up large amounts of blood, she was admitted to ICU and underwent bronchial artery embolisation, followed by tranexamic acid orally. A. fumigatus was cultured from sputum. A diagnosis of chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis with an aspergilloma was made. She didn't improve with itraconazole (no fall in Aspergillus precipitins and continuing symptoms, despite good blood levels) and was treated with voriconazole. She had a good sympomatic response, with marginal improvement in her Aspergillus precipitins titre. Remission continued for over 3 years but then her symptoms of cough and general fatigue returned. Her sputum grew A. fumigatus again, which had MICs to itraconazole (>8 mg/L, resistant), voriconazole (8mg/L, resistant) and posaconazole (2mg/mL, resistant). She is being treated with amphotericin B.