Purpose: Because of livestock and poultry products, human keep domestic animals in their home. Also molds, Like genus of Aspergillus infect animal and human food products with dangerous toxic substances, i.e. Aflatoxins that are causing primary and secodary mycotoxicosis in animals and human. The aim of this study was to compare fungal species that contaminated and produced aflatoxin in livestock and poultry feed in Gonabad that is a semi-arid city in northest of Iran.
Methods: In this experimental study, feed samples from two livestock feed factories and two poultry feed factories were collected during summer and autumn three times randomaly, according to sanitary conditions. Four forms of samples, solid disinfected sample, solid non-disinfected sample, suspension disinfected sample and suspension non-disinfected sample were cultured in sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol medium (SC) for five days in 28 degree centigrade.Microscopic diagnostic test and Molecular diagnostic test by PCR technique were used to determine fungal species in culture based on β-tubulin gene sequencing.
Results: Microscopic diagnostic tests of culture for fungi in 24 samples of two livestock and two poultry factories detected a mean of 27/25 percent and 31/70 percent of contamination to Aspergillus, respectively. The rest was other types of fungi. Molecular PCR testing detected 4 Aspergillus flavus, 2 A. fumigatus, 2 A. versicolor, 2 A. niger, 1 A. parasiticus, 1 A. ochraceus and 1 A. tereus. The results showed a significant difference between products of two poultry feed factories (p=0/017) and between products of livestock feed factories and poultry feed factories (p= 0/008) to Aspergillus. There was also a significant difference between the mixture of all livestock and poultry feed factories in summer and autumn (p=0/008). There was no significant difference between products of two livestock factories ( p=0/716). Data analysis was done using SPSS software, independent T-test an Mann-Whitny test.
Conclusion: Compared to livestock feed, poultry feed is more contaminated to Aspergillus species that is a producer of mycotoxins like aflatoxin. One of the poultry feed factory was more contaminated and one of the livestock feed factory was least contaminated to Aspergillus. The rate of contamination in autumn was higher than summer. Using molecular diagnostic test based in β -tubulin gene sequencing is more valid than morphological method. Therefore, this reliable method help us to provide educational and preventive programs to prevent contamination of livestock and poultry feed that infect human feed products with dangerous toxic substances, i.e. aflatoxins.
Full conference title:
- AAA 8th (2018)