Background: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) incur significant morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies (HEM) after chemotherapy. The risk for these infections is related to the intensity and duration of neutropenia, and varies from 2% to 40%. Mortality rates associated with documented IFIs are considerable, reportedly ranging from 30% to 60%. Empirical antifungal therapy is the standard care for neutropenic patients with HEM, who remain febrile despite broad-spectrum antibacterial treatment. Several antifungal agents including voriconazole (VRCZ) or liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) have been studied as empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia (FN). However, limited data are available concerning the efficacy of micafungin (MCFG) in FN patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods: We conducted a randomized, cooperative group, open-label trial comparing MCFG (150 mg once daily) with L-AMB (2.5 mg/kg once daily) as a first-line empirical antifungal treatment for 102 hospitalized FN patients with AML (MCFG, 53; L-AMB, 49). The efficacy end point was a favorable overall response, as determined by a five-component end point according to the criteria of Walsh et al (N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1391). Results: At the time of enrolment, there were no significant differences in the demographics or baseline characteristics between the two groups. The mean treatment duration for MCFG and L-AMB was 14.8 and 17.1 days, respectively. The efficacy rates of MCFG and L-AMB were not significantly different (58.5% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.1698*), evaluated based on: (1) successful treatment of baseline fungal infection (3/5cases (5.7%) vs. 0/1case (0%), p = 0.170*), (2) absence of breakthrough fungal infection (90.6% vs. 98.0%, p = 0.112*), (3) survival for ≥7 days after study completion (88.7% vs. 89.8%, p = 0.855*), (4) absence of premature study drug discontinuation due to poor efficacy or drug-related adverse events (67.9% vs. 75.5%, p = 0.396*), and (5) resolution of fever during neutropenia (66.0% vs. 55.1%, p = 0.258*). However, discontinuation due to drug-related adverse events occurred less frequently in the MCFG group (1.9% vs. 12.2%, p = 0.038*). In safety evaluation, adverse events of creatinine increase and hypokalemia were less often in the MCFG group than in the L-AMB group (9.4% vs. 26.5%, P=0.023*, 22.6% vs. 57.1%, P=0.0004*). *: Chi square test. Conclusions: MCFG was as effective as L-AMB, and better tolerated than L-AMB as an empirical antifungal therapy in FN patients with AML.
Full conference title:
- ASH 58th (2016)