Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is challenging, particularly in high-risk patients with lung lesions other than typical according to 2008-EORTC/MSG criteria. Even if microbiology is positive, they still remain unclassified according to 2008-EORTC/MSG. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) provides new mycological documentation of IA. This retrospective study assessed Aspergillus fumigatus real time qPCR (MycoGENIER ) in BAL to diagnose IA and identify azole-resistant strains. Clinical, radiological, and microbiological data from 114 hematology patients (69% HSCT recipients; 29% on mould active agents) from years 2012-2017 were collected; and 123 BAL samples were tested with qPCR (cutoff: Ct < 40) and galactomannan (GM, PlateliaR , cutoff: 0.5 ODI). Patients were classified as proven/probable, possible, and no-IA. “Atypical-IA” referred to patients with lesions other than typical according to 2008-EORTC/MSG and positive mycology. Proven IA was diagnosed in two cases (1.6%), probable in 28 (22.8%), possible in 27 (22%), atypical in 14 (11.4%). qPCR was positive in 39 samples (31.7%). Sensitivity and specificity of qPCR for proven/probable IA (vs no-IA; atypical-IA excluded) were 40% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23–59) and 69% (95%CI: 55–81), respectively. Sensitivity of qPCR was higher when combined with GM (83%, 95%CI: 65–94) and in those receiving mould-active agents at BAL (61%, 95%CI: 32–86). One sample had TR34/L98H mutation. In conclusion, in high-risk hematology patients with various lung lesions, A. fumigatus qPCR in BAL contributes to diagnosing IA, particularly if combined with GM and in patients receiving mould-active agents might allow detecting azole-resistant mutations in culture negative samples.