Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a high mortality opportunistic infection among kidney transplant recipients. This study assessed the risk factors and outcomes of IPA after KT. A retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary-care referral hospital in Korea. Electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with IPA after KT between February 1995 and March 2015 were reviewed. The control patients comprised two patients who received KT before and after each IPA case. Twenty-six cases were diagnosed with IPA among 1963 recipients at a median of 58 years old. The most common cause of end-stage renal disease was diabetic nephropathy. The median time to diagnosis was 161 days. Delayed graft function was associated with the development of IPA. The overall 12-week mortality rate of IPA was 57.5%. Serum GM level ≥ 2 and BAL GM level ≥ 5 were associated with 12-week mortality in the Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Approximately half of IPA in KT recipients developed during the late posttransplant period (> 6 months), especially after treatment for acute rejection. Careful monitoring for IPA is required in patients with delayed graft function, DM, and who received rejection therapy. Higher serum and BAL GM were associated with 12-week mortality.
Keywords: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis; Kidney transplantation; Mortality; Risk factor.