Pulmonary infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in solid-organ transplant recipients despite enhanced facilities for perioperative care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes of renal transplant recipients with pneumonia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The medical records of all renal transplant recipients from January 2010 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed, and patients diagnosed with pneumonia according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were evaluated. Pneumonia was classified as community acquired or nosocomial. Patient demographics, microbiologic findings, need for intensive care/mechanical ventilation over the course of treatment, and information about clinical follow-up and mortality were all recorded.
Eighteen (13.4%) of 134 renal transplant recipients had 25 pneumonia episodes within the study period. More than half (56%) of the pneumonia episodes developed within the first 6 months of transplant, whereas 44% developed after 6 months (all > 1 year). Eight cases (32%) were considered nosocomial pneumonia, and 17 (68%) were considered community-acquired pneumonia. Bacteria were the most common cause of pneumonia (28%), and fungi ranked second (8%). No viral or mycobacterial agents were detected. No patients required prolonged mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant difference was found in the need for intensive care or regarding mortality between patients with nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia. Two patients (11%) died, and all remaining patients recovered.
The present study confirmed that pneumonia after renal transplant is not a rare complication but a significant cause of morbidity. Long-term and close follow-up for pneumonia is necessary after renal transplant.