The prevalence of allergic diseases in the African continent has received limited attention with the allergic diseases due to fungal allergens being among the least studied. This lead to the opinion being that the prevalence of allergic disease is low in Africa. Recent reports from different African countries indicate that this is not the case as allergic conditions are common and some; particularly those due to fungal allergens are increasing in prevalence. Thus, there is need to understand both the aetiology and pathogenies of these diseases, particularly the neglected fungal allergic diseases. This review addresses currently available knowledge of fungal-induced allergy, disease pathogenesis comparing findings from human versus experimental mouse studies of fungal allergy. The review discusses the potential role of the gut mycobiome and the extent to which this is relevant to fungal allergy, diagnosis and human health.