Background: Chronic invasive fungal sinusitis (CIFS) is a rare, life-threatening infection of the nose and sinuses. This study aims to identify factors that impact survival in 1 of the largest cohorts to date.
Methods: Pathology records were reviewed for biopsy-proven CIFS from 3 tertiary academic institutions from 1995 to 2016. Variables were analyzed using log-rank survival analysis. Univariate Cox regression was performed at 1 and 12 months.
Results: Thirty-eight patients were included. Hematologic malignancy and diabetes were the most common underlying diseases (32% each). Aspergillus was the most common fungus (63%). Greater than 75% of the patients had an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >1000 at the time of diagnosis. Overall survival at 1, 6, and 12 months was 89%, 68%, and 48%, respectively. In univariate analysis, factors associated with worse survival included: ANC <500 at 12 months (hazard ratio [HR] 4.8; p = 0.01), ANC <1000 at 12 months (HR 5.8; p = 0.001), and recent chemotherapy (HR 4; p = 0.01). The following factor was associated with improved survival in univariate analysis: ANC as a linear variable in the entire cohort (HR 0.7; p = 0.005).
Conclusion: We present a multi-institutional case-series of CIFS and long-term follow-up. ANC <1000 at time of diagnosis and recent chemotherapy (within 1 month of diagnosis) are associated with poorer survival, whereas a rising ANC >1000 is associated with improved survival at 12 months. Further prospective studies are needed to further define factors that affect outcomes.
Keywords: chronic disease; fungal sinusitis; invasive fungal sinusitis; paranasal sinus disease; sinusitis.