Isavuconazole use in pediatric patients with hemato-oncologic diseases and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a case-series and literature review.


Decembrino N, Perruccio K, Zecca M, Colombini A, Calore E, Muggeo P, Soncini E, Comelli A, Molinaro M, Goffredo BM, De Gregori S, Giardini I, Scudeller L, Cesaro S.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Dec 23. pii: AAC.01783-19.


We analyzed the use of isavuconazole (ISA) as treatment or prophylaxis for invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children with hemato-oncologic diseases. A multicentric retrospective analysis was performed among centers belonging to the Italian Association for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP). Pharmacokinetic (PK) monitoring was applied by a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HLPC-MS/MS) assay. Twenty-nine patients were studied: 10 during chemotherapy and 19 after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The patients consisted of 20 males and 9 females with a median age of 14.5 years (age range, 3 to 18 years) and a median body weight of 47 kg (body weight range, 15 to 80 kg). ISA was used as prophylaxis in 5 patients and as treatment in 24 cases (20 after therapeutic failure, 4 as first-line therapy). According to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria, we registered 5 patients with proven IFD, 9 patients with probable IFD, and 10 patients with possible IFD. Patients with a body weight of <30 kg received half the ISA dose; the others received ISA on the adult schedule (a 200-mg loading dose every 8 h on days 1 and 2 and a 200-mg/day maintenance dose); for all but 10 patients, the route of administration switched from the intravenous route to the oral route during treatment. ISA was administered for a median of 75.5 days (range, 6 to 523 days). The overall response rate was 70.8%; 12 patients with IFD achieved complete remission, 5 achieved partial remission, 5 achieved progression, and 3 achieved stable IFD. No breakthrough infections were registered. PK monitoring of 17 patients revealed a median ISA steady-state trough concentration of 4.91 mg/liter (range, 2.15 to 8.54 mg/liter) and a concentration/dose (in kilograms) ratio of 1.13 (range, 0.47 to 3.42). Determination of the 12-h PK profile was performed in 6 cases. The median area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was 153.16 mg·h/liter (range, 86.31 to 169.45 mg·h/liter). Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 1 to 3 toxicity (increased transaminase and/or creatinine levels) was observed in 6 patients, with no drug-drug interactions being seen in patients receiving immunosuppressants. Isavuconazole may be useful and safe in children with hemato-oncologic diseases, even in the HSCT setting. Prospective studies are warranted.