Invasive fungal infections are life-threatening conditions that require rapid diagnosis and optimal management to alleviate their high morbidity and mortality. They are also associated with a high economic burden, owing to prolonged hospitalization, the need for intensive supportive care, and the consumption of costly new antifungal agents. Many standards of care and guidelines have been published by national and international medical societies and organizations over the past 20 years that have embraced new diagnostic technologies and strategies, and new antifungal drugs. Recognizing the ongoing need and debate on the topic of standards for optimal diagnostics and patient care, the Scientific Committee of the Continuing Antifungal Research and Education (CARE) programme devised the scientific agenda for the 10th CARE (CARE X) meeting to review current practice and recommendations. Specialists in haematology, infectious diseases, medical microbiology and medical mycology met in Barcelona in November 2017. The meeting was organized and funded by Gilead Sciences Europe Ltd.