Impact of dose adaptations following voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring in pediatric patients.


Lempers VJ, Meuwese E, Mavinkurve-Groothuis AM, Henriet S, van der Sluis IM, Hanff LM, Warris A, Koch BCP, Brüggemann RJ.
Med Mycol. 2019 Feb 13.


Voriconazole is the mainstay of treatment for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised pediatric patients. Although Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of voriconazole is recommended, it remains unknown if TDM-based dose adaptations result in target attainment. Patients <19 years from two pediatric hematologic-oncology wards were retrospectively identified based on unexplained high voriconazole trough concentrations (Cmin > 6 mg/l). Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment, voriconazole dosing information, voriconazole Cmin before and after adjustment based on TDM were obtained. Twenty-one patients, median (range) age 7.0 (1.2-18.5) years, were identified in two centers. First Cmin (3.1 mg/l [0.1-13.5]) was obtained after 3 days (1-27) of treatment. The median of all Cmin (n = 485, median 11 per patient) was 2.16 mg/l (0.0 (undetectable)-28.0), with 24.1% of Cmin < 1 mg/l, 48.9% 1-4 mg/l, 9.3% 4-6 mg/l, and 17.7% > 6 mg/l. Intrapatient variability was large (94.1% for IV, 88.5% for PO). Dose increases at Cmin < 1 mg/l resulted in an increased Cmin in 76.4%, with 60% between 1 and 4 mg/l. Dose decreases at Cmin > 6 mg/l resulted in a decreased Cmin in 80%, with 51% between 1 and 4 mg/l. Overall, in 45% of the cases (33 out of 55 and 12 out of 45) therapeutic targets were attained after dose adjustment. Fifty-five percent of initial Cmin was outside the therapeutic target of 1-4 mg/l, with multiple dose adaptations required to achieve therapeutic concentrations. Only 60% and 51% of dose adaptations following sub- and supra-therapeutic Cmin, respectively, did result in target attainment. Intensive and continuous TDM of voriconazole is a prerequisite for ensuring adequate exposure in pediatric patients.