Immune Parameters for Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring in Invasive Mold Infection.


Jenks JD, Rawlings SA, Garcia-Vidal C, Koehler P, Mercier T, Prattes J, Lass-Flörl C, Martin-Gomez MT, Buchheidt D, Pagano L, Gangneux JP, van de Veerdonk FL, Netea MG, Carvalho A, Hoenigl M.
J Fungi (Basel). 2019 Dec 16;5(4). pii: E116.


Infections caused by invasive molds, including Aspergillus spp., can be difficult to diagnose and remain associated with high morbidity and mortality. Thus, early diagnosis and targeted systemic antifungal treatment remains the most important predictive factor for a successful outcome in immunocompromised individuals with invasive mold infections. Diagnosis remains difficult due to low sensitivities of diagnostic tests including culture and other mycological tests for mold pathogens, particularly in patients on mold-active antifungal prophylaxis. As a result, antifungal treatment is rarely targeted and reliable markers for treatment monitoring and outcome prediction are missing. Thus, there is a need for improved markers to diagnose invasive mold infections, monitor response to treatment, and assist in determining when antifungal therapy should be escalated, switched, or can be stopped. This review focuses on the role of immunologic markers and specifically cytokines in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of invasive mold infections.