Global Aspects of Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus with Focus on Latin American Countries.

Author: 

Gonçalves SS
Azole resistance in Aspergillus has emerged as an escalating problem in health care, and it has been detected in patients exposed, or not, to these drugs. It is known that azole antifungals are widely applied not only in clinical treatments for fungal infections, but also as agricultural fungicides, resulting in a significant threat for human health. Although the number of cases of azole-resistant aspergillosis is still limited, various resistance mechanisms are described from clinical and environmental isolates. These mechanisms consist mainly of alterations in the target of azole action (CYP51A gene)-specifically on TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A, which are responsible for over 90% of resistance cases. This review summarizes the epidemiology, management, and extension of azole resistance in A. fumigatus worldwide and its potential impact in Latin American countries, emphasizing its relevance to clinical practice. KEYWORDS: Aspergillus fumigatus; CYP51A; Latin American; aspergillosis; azole resistance

Abstract: 

Azole resistance in Aspergillus has emerged as an escalating problem in health care, and it has been detected in patients exposed, or not, to these drugs. It is known that azole antifungals are widely applied not only in clinical treatments for fungal infections, but also as agricultural fungicides, resulting in a significant threat for human health. Although the number of cases of azole-resistant aspergillosis is still limited, various resistance mechanisms are described from clinical and environmental isolates. These mechanisms consist mainly of alterations in the target of azole action (CYP51A gene)-specifically on TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A, which are responsible for over 90% of resistance cases. This review summarizes the epidemiology, management, and extension of azole resistance in A. fumigatus worldwide and its potential impact in Latin American countries, emphasizing its relevance to clinical practice. KEYWORDS: Aspergillus fumigatus; CYP51A; Latin American; aspergillosis; azole resistance