Purpose of review: Fungal infections cause significant mortality in patients with acquired immunodeficiencies including AIDS, hematological malignancies, transplantation, and receipt of corticosteroids, biologics or small-molecule kinase inhibitors that impair key immune pathways. The contribution of several such pathways in antifungal immunity has been uncovered by inherited immunodeficiencies featuring profound fungal susceptibility. Furthermore, the risk of fungal infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiencies may be modulated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune-related genes. This review outlines key features underlying human genetic fungal predisposition.
Recent findings: The discovery of monogenic disorders that cause fungal disease and the characterization of immune-related gene SNPs that may regulate fungal susceptibility have provided important insights into how genetic variation affects development and outcome of fungal infections in humans.
Summary: Recognition of individualized genetic fungal susceptibility traits in humans should help devise precision-medicine strategies for risk assessment, prognostication and treatment of patients with opportunistic fungal infections.
Keywords: Aspergillosis; candidiasis; fungal infection; genetic; inherited immunodeficiency; single nucleotide polymorphisms.