Extended Dosing Regimens for Fungal Prophylaxis.


Lehrnbecher T, Bochennek K, Klingebiel T, Gastine S, Hempel G, Groll AH.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2019 May 15;32(3). pii: e00010-19.


 SUMMARY Invasive fungal diseases carry high morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancies or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In order to prevent these life-threatening infections, antifungal chemoprophylaxis plays an important role in daily clinical practice. Broad-spectrum antifungal triazoles are widely used but exhibit disadvantages such as relevant drug-drug interactions. Therefore, amphotericin B products or echinocandins can be an alternative in selected patient populations. As these compounds are available as intravenous formulations only, there is growing interest in extended dosing regimens. Although not approved for these agents, this strategy is a rational option, as these compounds have properties suitable for this strategy, including dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, prolonged elimination half-life, and a large therapeutic window. As the use of extended dosing regimens in antifungal prophylaxis is expanding in clinical practice, we reviewed the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic rationale for this strategy, animal model data, dose escalation studies, and clinical trials supporting this concept.