Endobronchial aspergilloma (EBA) is a rare manifestation of pulmonary infection with Aspergillus spp. Comprised of hyphae, mucus, and cellular debris, the massive fungus overgrowth can lead to obstructive pneumonitis in large airways, manifesting as cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, or weight loss. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on endobronchial aspergilloma to further elucidate this disease entity and to classify it as a non-invasive form of pulmonary aspergillosis. A descriptive analysis was performed on articles on PubMed database that contained the key word "endobronchial aspergilloma." A total of 28 cases were obtained. Four articles were excluded as they were not available in the English format. Although EBA is extremely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of endobronchial masses in immunocompromised patients. There is a potential for the disease entity to progress to tracheobronchitis and fulminant respiratory failure. As such, early detection with bronchoscopy, biopsy, and culture is required to confirm pulmonary aspergillosis. Current treatment regimens remain to be optimized, though piecemeal resection of the mycetoma with bronchoscopic techniques with the addition of systemic antifungals and their combinations has been reported as efficacious.
Keywords: Aspergillosis; Endobronchial aspergilloma; Fungal infection; Pulmonary infection.