Determination of azole fungal residues in soils and detection of Aspergillus fumigatus-resistant strains in market gardens of Eastern France.


Rocchi S, Ponçot M, Morin-Crini N, Laboissière A, Valot B, Godeau C, Léchenault-Bergerot C, Reboux G, Crini G, Millon L
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Sep 14


Medical azole antifungals are major compounds used to prevent and to treat invasive aspergillosis (IA). Azole fungicides, called DMI (14-alpha demethylase inhibitors), are also widely used for crop protection and have been reported to be linked to azole-resistant A. fumigatus (aR-Af) development in the environment. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not market gardens that spray DMIs in Eastern France are also affected by the presence of aR-Af. Forty aR-Afs were detected in soils in only two of the four market gardens using DMIs, with 23% (7/30) and 10% (3/30) of soils containing aR-Af. A total of 87.5% of these isolates had the TR34/L98H mutation and 22.5% the TR46/Y121F/T289A mutation on the cyp51A gene. Analyses of residual azole concentrations in soils showed the presence of difenoconazole for up to 2 years after spraying, but only in soils of market gardens where aR-Af was detected. It is very important to identify professional activities that could lead to aR-Af development and to develop preventive measures for at-risk patients living near professional activities using DMIs. We have to better understand why, in some cases, the use of DMI is not linked to aR-Af. Measures should be taken to avoid the use of DMI conferring cross-resistance to preserve the efficiency of human therapeutics.