Cytochalasans Produced by the Coculture of Aspergillus flavipes and Chaetomium globosum.


Wang W, Gong J, Liu X, Dai C, Wang Y, Li XN, Wang J, Luo Z, Zhou Y, Xue Y, Zhu H, Chen C, Zhang Y.
J Nat Prod. 2018 Jul 27;81(7):1578-1587


The cocultivation of Aspergillus flavipes and Chaetomium globosum, rich sources of cytochalasans, on solid rice medium, resulted in the production of 13 new, highly oxygenated cytochalasans, aspochalasinols A-D (1-4) and oxichaetoglobosins A-I (5-13), as well as seven known compounds (14-20). Of these compounds, 13 is a novel cytochalasan with an unexpected 2-norindole group. The isolated compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and ECD experiments. Compounds 1-4 represent the first examples of Asp-type cytochalasans with C-12 hydroxy groups, which may be a result of the coculture, as hydroxylated Me-12 groups are frequently found in Chae-type cytochalasans from C. globosum. In addition, 5-10 are unusual cytochalasans with an oxygenated C-10. Interestingly, 13 is the first example of a naturally occurring cytochalasan possessing a uniquely degraded indole ring that is derived from chaetoglobosin W, with 11 and 12 both serving as its biosynthetic intermediates. In the coculture of A. flavipes and C. globosum, most of these cytochalasans are more functionalized than normal cytochalasans, and the underlying causes may attract substantial attention from synthetic biologists. The cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines (SW480, HL-60, A549, MCF-7, and SMMC-7721) and the immunomodulatory activities of these new compounds were evaluated in vitro.