Clinical features in proven and probable invasive fungal disease in children and adolescents at a pediatric referral center: a 5-year experience.


Kishimoto K, Kasai M, Kawamura N, Ito Y, Yoshida M, Hasegawa D, Kawasaki K, Kosaka Y.
World J Pediatr. 2019 Apr 22.



There is limited information concerning the overall epidemiology of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical features of IFD in a tertiary pediatric care hospital.


Patients diagnosed with proven or probable IFD at our hospital between 2011 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Proven and probable IFD were defined according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group consensus. Patients with possible IFD were excluded.


The incidence of proven or probable IFD was 26 of 20,079 hospitalized patients (0.13%). The predominant underlying disease was malignancy (54%) and congenital anomaly (27%). The most common diagnosis was candidemia among the patients with proven IFD (8 of 13, 62%). All the isolated pathogens in the candidemia patients were non-albicans Candida spp. The most common site of infection was the lungs in patients with probable IFD (11 of 13 patients, 85%). In probable IFD episodes, positive β-D-glucan and galactomannan were found in 12 of 13 (92%) and 5 of 13 (38%) patients, respectively. All but one patient (96%) received empirical antifungal therapy. No patients underwent surgical resection of residual lesions. The overall mortality was 23% and the attributable mortality of IFD was 12%.


Our results suggest the emergence of non-albicans Candida species as important pathogens in childhood IFD.


Children; Incidence; Invasive fungal disease; Mortality