The Asia Cornea Society Infectious Keratitis Study: A Prospective Multicenter Study of Infectious Keratitis in Asia.

Author: 

Khor WB, Prajna VN, Garg P, Mehta JS, Xie L, Liu Z, Padilla MDB, Joo CK, Inoue Y, Goseyarakwong P, Hu FR, Nishida K, Kinoshita S, Puangsricharern V, Tan AL, Beuerman R, Young A, Sharma N, Haaland B, Mah FS, Tu EY, Stapleton FJ, Abbott RL, Tan DT; ACSIKS Group.
Am J Ophthalmol. 2018 Nov;195:161-170.

Abstract: 

PURPOSE:

To survey the demographics, risk factors, microbiology, and outcomes for infectious keratitis in Asia.

DESIGN:

Prospective, nonrandomized clinical study.

METHODS:

Thirteen study centers and 30 sub-centers recruited consecutive subjects over 12-18 months, and performed standardized data collection. A microbiological protocol standardized the processing and reporting of all isolates. Treatment of the infectious keratitis was decided by the managing ophthalmologist. Subjects were observed for up to 6 months. Main outcome measures were final visual acuity and the need for surgery during infection.

RESULTS:

A total of 6626 eyes of 6563 subjects were studied. The majority of subjects were male (n = 3992). Trauma (n = 2279, 34.7%) and contact lens wear (n = 704, 10.7%) were the commonest risk factors. Overall, bacterial keratitis was diagnosed in 2521 eyes (38.0%) and fungal keratitis in 2166 eyes (32.7%). Of the 2831 microorganisms isolated, the most common were Fusarium species (n = 518, 18.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 302, 10.7%), and Aspergillus flavus (n = 236, 8.3%). Cornea transplantation was performed in 628 eyes to manage ongoing infection, but 289 grafts (46%) had failed by the end of the study. Moderate visual impairment (Snellen vision less than 20/60) was documented in 3478 eyes (53.6%).

CONCLUSION:

Demographic and risk factors for infection vary by country, but infections occur predominantly in male subjects and are frequently related to trauma. Overall, a similar percentage of bacterial and fungal infections were diagnosed in this study. Visual recovery after infectious keratitis is guarded, and corneal transplantation for active infection is associated with a high failure rate.