Antifungal Therapy in Birds: Old Drugs in a New Jacket.


Antonissen G, Martel A.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2018 May;21(2):355-377.


The use of antifungals in birds is characterized by interspecies and interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics, affecting drug safety and efficacy. Oral antifungal drug absorption is a complex process affected by drug formulation characteristics, gastrointestinal anatomy, and physiology. New antifungal drug delivery systems can enhance drug stability, reduce off-target side effects, prolong residence time in the blood, and improve efficacy. Topical administration of antifungals through nebulization shows promising results. However, therapeutic output is highly influenced by drug formulation and type of nebulizer, indicating these factors should be taken into account when selecting this medication route.

KEYWORDS: Amphotericin B; Antifungal; Drug formulation; Itraconazole; Nanoparticles; Nebulization; Terbinafine; Voriconazole