Antifungal synergy of a topical triazole, PC945, with a systemic triazole against respiratory Aspergillus fumigatus infection.

Author: 

Colley T, Sehra G, Daly L, Kimura G, Nakaoki T, Nishimoto Y, Kizawa Y, Strong P, Rapeport G, Ito K.
Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 1;9(1):9482.

Abstract: 

Invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients and treatment outcomes using oral antifungal triazoles remain suboptimal. Here we show that combining topical treatment using PC945, a novel inhaled triazole, with systemic treatment using known triazoles demonstrated synergistic antifungal effects against Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) in an in vitro human alveolus bilayer model and in the lungs of neutropenic immunocompromised mice. Combination treatment with apical PC945 and either basolateral posaconazole or voriconazole resulted in a synergistic interaction with potency improved over either compound as a monotherapy against both azole-susceptible and resistant AF invasion in vitro. Surprisingly there was little, or no synergistic interaction observed when apical and basolateral posaconazole or voriconazole were combined. In addition, repeated prophylactic treatment with PC945, but not posaconazole or voriconazole, showed superior effects to single prophylactic dose, suggesting tissue retention and/or accumulation of PC945. Furthermore, in mice infected with AF intranasally, 83% of animals treated with a combination of intranasal PC945 and oral posaconazole survived until day 7, while little protective effects were observed by either compound alone. Thus, the combination of a highly optimised topical triazole with oral triazoles potentially induces synergistic effects against AF infection.