Scedosporium apiospermum disseminated infection in a single lung transplant recipient

Author: SolÉ A

Date: 13 October 2011

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Scedosporium spp. are filamentous fungi, and the 2 most important species are Scedosporium prolificans and Scedosporium apiospermum. S. apiospermum accounts for approximately 25% of non-Aspergillus filamentous fungi infections in organ transplant recipients. Scedosporium can colonize the sinuses and airways of lung recipients with underlying pulmonary diseases, such as bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis before transplant, and develop invasive disease after lung transplantation. In fact, invasive diseases caused by S. apiospermum have been reported only rarely, in single lung transplant recipients and cystic fibrosis transplant patients. The treatment of scedosporiasis is complicated due to the difficulty in early diagnosis together with inherent resistance to amphotericin B.CASE REPORT: A case of disseminated S. apiospermum infection after single lung transplant in a patient with pulmonary fibrosis is reported. Leg mycetoma was the initial sign of this disseminated infection. In this case report, current treatment options are discussed, and a review of the literature of previously published cases of lung transplants is made.CONCLUSIONS: One conclusion based on this case is the risk of emergent molds related to antifungal prophylaxis. In addition, colonization by Scedosporium in transplant recipients should not be ignored, and target prophylaxis or suppressive therapy should be considered in all those cases with residual lesions in native lung or chronic rejection in transplanted lungs.

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