Mechanistic insight to mycoremediation potential of a metal resistant fungal strain for removal of hazardous metals from multimetal pesticide matrix.
Dey P, Malik A, Mishra A, Singh DK, von Bergen M, Jehmlich N.
Date: 6 March 2020
Fungi have an exceptional capability to flourish in presence of heavy metals and pesticide. However, the mechanism of bioremediation of pesticide (lindane) and multimetal [mixture of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)] by a fungus is little understood. In the present study, Aspergillus fumigatus, a filamentous fungus was found to accumulate heavy metals in the order [Zn(98%)>Pb(95%)>Cd(63%)>Cr(62%)>Ni(46%)>Cu(37%)] from a cocktail of 30 mg L-1 multimetal and lindane (30 mg L-1) in a composite media amended with 1% glucose. Particularly, Pb and Zn uptake was enhanced in presence of lindane. Remarkably, lindane was degraded to 1.92 ± 0.01 mg L-1 in 72 h which is below the permissible limit value (2.0 mg L-1) for the discharge of lindane into the aquatic bodies as prescribed by European Community legislation. The utilization of lindane as a cometabolite from the complex environment was evident by the phenomenal growth of the fungal pellet biomass (5.89 ± 0.03 g L-1) at 72 h with cube root growth constant of fungus (0.0211 g1/3 L-1/3 h-1) compared to the biomasses obtained in case of the biotic control as well as in presence of multimetal complex without lindane. The different analytical techniques revealed the various stress coping strategies adopted by A. fumigatus for multimetal uptake in the simultaneous presence of multimetal and pesticide. From the Transmission electron microscope coupled energy dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDAX) results, uptake of the metals Cd, Cu and Pb in the cytoplasmic membrane and the accumulation of the metals Cr, Ni and Zn in the cytoplasm of the fungus were deduced. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed involvement of carboxyl/amide group of fungal cell wall in metal chelation. Thus A. fumigatus exhibited biosorption and bioaccumulation as the mechanisms involved in detoxification of multimetals.
Keywords: Bioaccumulation; Biosorption; Lindane; Multimetal; TEM-EDAX.
Link to DOI:https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114255