Invasive Tracheobronchial Aspergillosis in Critically Ill Patients with Severe Influenza. A Clinical Trial.
Nyga R, Maizel J, Nseir S, Chouaki T, Milic I, Roger PA, Van Grunderbeeck N, Lemyze M, Totet A, Castelain S, Slama M, Dupont H, Sendid B, Zogheib E.
Date: 1 September 2020
Rationale: Invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis (ITBA) is an uncommon but severe clinical form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the fungal infection is entirely or predominantly confined to the tracheobronchial tree.
Objectives: To analyze the diagnostic and prognostic differences between tracheobronchial aspergillosis and pulmonary aspergillosis without tracheobronchial lesions among patients admitted to the ICU with severe influenza.
Methods: This retrospective, observational study included critically ill patients with influenza associated with pulmonary aspergillosis from three hospital ICUs between 2010 and 2019. Patient characteristics and clinical and mycologic data at admission and during ICU stay were collected in a database to evaluate variables in the two groups.
Measurements and Main Results: Thirty-five patients admitted to the ICU with severe influenza and pulmonary aspergillosis were included. Ten patients were included in the group with ITBA (n = 10 of 35; 28.6%), and 25 patients were included in the group without ITBA. The group with ITBA comprised more patients with active smoking, diabetes mellitus, and higher severity scores (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II). Ninety-day mortality rates in the groups with and without ITBA were 90% and 44%, respectively (P = 0.02). Moreover, significantly higher serum 1,3-β-d-glucan and galactomannan and BAL fluid galactomannan concentrations were observed in the group with ITBA compared with the group without ITBA (P < 0.0001, P = 0.003, and P = 0.008, respectively).
Conclusions: ITBA was associated with higher severity scores, mortality, and serum and BAL fluid galactomannan and 1,3-β-d-glucan concentrations than invasive pulmonary aspergillosis without tracheobronchial lesions. ITBA should be systematically researched by bronchoscopic examination in ICU patients with concomitant pulmonary aspergillosis and influenza.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04077697).
Keywords: (1-3)-β-d-glucan; ICU; aspergillosis; galactomannan; influenza.
Link to DOI:https://www.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201910-1931OC